Urban Sociology

The midterm is a “take home” exam. It will account for 100 points and 20% of the course grade. Refer to the relevant reading and lecture materials. View the contextual statements, transitions, and questions in the paragraph below. Provide a thorough essay answer that clearly addresses all of the questions. You should send your finished essay as a Word document to my email address by 12:00 pm on Saturday, April 17th. There is no “minimum” page requirement for answering the questions. Good luck.Many urban scholars see the postindustrial city as a local site for the expression of contemporary class and race conflicts. Such conflicts take place regarding private investment, housing, access to jobs, lifestyle differences, commerce, education, public services, and neighborhood “turf.”1) The rise of “neoliberal” economic conditions has reshaped and expanded patterns of social inequality globally, nationally, and locally. Elite segments have grown wealthier and more powerful in the neoliberal era. For Brash, what are the TCC and the PMC respectively, and why were these groupings significant in the context of New York’s transformation in the Bloomberg era? Elaborate.2) What does Brash mean by the term “luxury city” and how did the Bloomberg administration go about promoting this feature of neoliberalization in the city of New York? Explain.3) Broadly speaking, the postwar rise of the new middle class has been tied to the development of postindustrial social conditions by scholars such as C. Wright Mills and Daniel Bell. What trends account for the transformation and relative decline of the broad middle classes in the U.S. since the 1980s? Elaborate.4) The decline of middle-class opportunities in recent decades is also apparently linked to the creation of a controversial “underclassdebate” among scholars, policy advocates, and politicians. Indeed, many U.S. cities have developed “hyperghettoes” where the most severe urban problems are located. What are the key features of a hyperghetto discussed in lecture? Explain.5) Rios argues that one of the responses to such urban problems in East Oakland (and other places) is the “criminalization” of youth. Why does Rios argue that not only criminal justice institutions (police, courts, etc.) but also other community institutions and participants are part of the criminalization of youth in Oakland? Explain.6) Why do these young males feel that in the context of neighborhood life, they must choose between freedom versus dignity, and how does this explain the strategy of choosing “deviant politics?” Elaborate.

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