Virtue Ethics

Late papers will have points deducted.  The PLAGIARISM PROGRAM IS ON.  I will not grade any question that has been plagiarized and you will lose ALL points for that question (2). You are to write a long paragraph to 2 paragraphs for the following. NO BULLET POINTS. Use only the criteria discussed in class and provide a brief explanation of the theory you are using as a lens through which you conduct your analysis.  Each question specifically lists CRITERIA and has a thesis and ONE_SIDED Conclusion.  Your analysis must prove your position with proof and evidence from the case study. The ethical criterion must analyze a single moment in the case study. Nothing is broad. You are not to take photographs or copy any of the questions.  You will be liable for these actions.   1– A depressed septuagenarian with terminal cancer wants to stop all treatment. Should he be allowed to, or should his depression be regarded as rendering him incompetent to make such decisions? Discuss the options through a lens of Bioethics (autonomy/beneficence).  In terms of utilitarianism, what will be the effect of either decision? (Discuss from the answer you gave to the first part) Cite criteria and show application; be specific.  Which option is more ethical (not religiously)? Why?   2– John G. Rangos, Sr., the founder of Chambers Development Co., a waste management firm, demanded bottom-line results. When executives reported to him in 1990 that profits would fall short of projections, he is quoted to have said, “Go find the rest of it.” And so they did, until an outside audit in 1992 found that the company had falsely reported strong profits in every year since 1985, although it was losing money all the time. Former employees say that, in the pursuit of growth, manipulated numbers were tolerated, or perhaps even encouraged. One former employee who found discrepancies in 1988 was told, “This is how the game is played.”  Applying Virtue Ethics, how does this example demonstrate unethical behavior and on the part of whom? Cite criteria and show application; be specific.  Why is the whistleblower ethical? Explain.   3–Since 1891, the concepts of purity, high quality, and natural ingredients had served as the foundation of its corporate culture and had been a consistent marketing theme. What had caused Beech-Nut to stray from its heritage and reputation?  What, exactly is considered to be unethical? Why?   Perhaps some portion of motive can be inferred from a report President Neils Hoyvald wrote to Nestle, the company that had acquired Beech-Nut in the midst of his cover-up. “It is our feeling that we can report safely now that the apple juice recall has been completed. If the recall had been effectuated in early June [when the FDA had first ordered it], over 700,000 cases in inventory would have been affected…. Due to our many delays, we were only faced with having to destroy 20,000 cases.”   Beginning in 1977, the company began buying a chemical concoction, made up mostly of sugar and water, and labeling it “apple juice.” Sales of that product brought Beech-Nut an estimated $60 million between 1977 and 1982 while reducing material costs about $250,000 annually.   When various investigators tried to do something about it, the company stonewalled. Among other things, they shipped the bogus juice out of a plant in New York to Puerto Rico, to put it beyond the jurisdiction of federal investigators, and they even offered the juice as a giveaway to reduce their stocks after they were finally forced to discontinue selling it. In the end, the company pleaded guilty to 215 counts of introducing adulterated food into commerce and violating the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. The FDA fined Beech-Nut $2 million. In addition, Beech-Nut’s president Neils Hoyvald and its vice president of operations John Lavery were found guilty.  Applying the ideas of Corporate Social Responsibility, analyze why the behavior was unethical.  Include in your argument the ethical decision of the court and the FDA. Cite criteria and show application; be specific.  Do NOT BE broad!

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