U.S. Supreme Court
In a response of 150 words to 200 words, please explain what you think happened to cause the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn the separate but equal doctrine that had been established in the Plessy v. Ferguson case through the first Brown v. Board of Education case? How did the court in 1896 come to the conclusion that accommodations could still be equal if they were separate? Why was the court so insistent in 1954 that even if accommodations were equal, they nevertheless conferred racially stigmatizing treatment against African Americans and others as a consequence of separate accommodations? Also, explain how the Ninth Circuit overturned the separate but equal practice in California with respect to separating Mexican American students from others without overturning the separate but equal doctrine? Why did the N.A.A.C.P. first challenge the separate but equal doctrine at the college level rather than K-12? Despite the courts ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, how did states continue to impose the separate but equal doctrine in schools and other accommodations? Therefore, explain the significance of the second Brown v. Board of Education case in terms of integrating schools? Also, describe what actions President Eisenhower had to take in response to Governor Orval Faubus use of the Arkansas National Guard to block integration at Little Rock Central High School? What position did the court take in the case Cooper v. Aaron? Also, what was the significance of the interstate commerce clause with respect to Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the courts rulings in Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States and Katzenbach v. McClung?